Yes, it does. And depending on how quickly you get your Missouri or Illinois bankruptcy filed, you can actually prevent the creditor from taking any action at all (so as to avoid any money being garnished from your pay checks).
The filing of a bankruptcy is accompanied by what is called an Automatic Stay. This is a fancy way of saying that everything stops. All creditor activity must immediately cease, including phone calls and letters. This Stay also extends to anything awarded to the creditor by way of a hearing. When a creditor sues you for breach of contract on a debt that you owe, the judgment from the court allows the creditor to do one of three things: 1) garnish your wages; 2) levy your bank account; 3) place a lien against your property. The creditor can execute one of these options, or it can do all three at once. The most likely, of course, is the wage garnishment. The creditor simply sends your employer the necessary documentation, and the payroll department begins to deduct.
But once a bankruptcy is filed (whether it is a St. Louis Chapter 7 bankruptcy, or a St. Louis Chapter 13 bankruptcy), the garnishment must end. Your bankruptcy attorney simply notifies the creditor’s attorney of this fact, and that attorney then sends a Release of Garnishment to your payroll department. In addition, the underlying debt is discharged, along with the rest of your unsecured creditors (whether they be in the form of credit cards, medical bills, payday loans, deficiencies from a repossession or foreclosure, etc.)